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Table of Contents

  • Introduction

1. Daily Life/Family Life/Religious Life of Ancient Greece
  • Customs of Female &Male in Ancient Greece
  • Social Classes
  • Piety
  • Law & Balance
  • Celebration Time, Come On!!!
  • You Influenced Me
2.The Arts, Sciences, and Educational System in Ancient Greece
  • The Arts of Greece
  • Greek Architecture Is Art
  • Education for Children
  • Spartan Warrior - The Education of Spartans
  • Symbol of Greece
  • Sculpting of Ancient Greece
3. Sports and Entertainment in Ancient Greece
  • Chariot Racing
  • Wrestling & Jumping
  • Javelin & Discus

4. The Political State: Greek Democracy in Thought and Practice
  • The System of Demokratia
  • The Ekklesia
  • The Boule
  • The Diksateria
  • Cleisthenes
  • The American Democracy and Athenian Democracy

  • Reflections

1. Daily Life/Family Life/Religious Life of Ancient Greece

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Customs of Female & Male in Ancient Greece by Lourdes Dizon‍‍‍‍‍‍‍



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‍‍‍‍‍‍‍ Isn't it fascinating how before, the customs of women and men were always compared? How the respect and responsibility are both different from how much is expected from each gender? But also the fact that when we look at our world now, not much has changed ‍‍‍. ‍‍‍Although women have earned higher respect and responsibility, they are constantly underestimated for their gender, but the past always affects the future. Men in the society of Ancient Greece were the "hard workers," it was said that when they did not train in the military they would involve their spare time in theater entertainment. They would perform both genders in the play, along with the fact it wouldn't matter if it was a comedy or romance, so they would play the women's role...disturbing. They would also be involved in current politics, since the men made up the government for the Greeks. It is mentioned that men were dominant in public life since they given the "permission" to be more engaged. He was also master of the house where he is treated with more respect than his family. It is said that he is fed by slaves and is entertained in one room, while his family each dinner in another. For the younger men/boys, they received more attention and "goodies" in life. They would be sent to school at the age of 6, and would be expected to have a healthy body and mind. Along with the fact that they would receive [[#|jobs]] that would earn them more glory and possibly praise. ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍

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‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍ With women in Ancient Greece, they were tied to domestic work such as weaving. ‍‍‍ Compared to now, women can be lawyers, doctors but the way we earn these jobs/responsibilities is difficult since men (o ‍‍‍r any gender) would be sexist. Also women are in some situations where they are not given the same pay grade as men even though they are working the same job. Before, younger ladies didn't attend school because there importance to society wasn't that important of one of a man. They were raised and taught how to cook, weave, and clean which were the only skills that they possessed, and some of these skills are what are expected from women presently since society changed perspective of the human race. They would probably learn to sing songs for religious festivals but would eventually be given away by their father. Adding to the fact that even before appearance symbolized who you are! I ‍‍‍t was said that if you have whiter skin color you were rich enough to stay indoor instead of going outside to work. ‍‍‍The ancient customs have affected the outcome of our customs presently. When you research a topic such as this, it shows how much more men were important and how women would be a toy. It gives men permission to believe that they should continue to be the dominant gender seeing what history turned to show. ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍

‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍Work Cited:

1) "Ancient Greek Everyday Life." Ancient Greece . [[#|University]] Press Inc., 2003. < http://www.ancientgreece.com/s/Life/ >

2) "Roles of Men and Women in Ancient Greece." Roles of Men and Women in Ancient Greece . N.p., n.d. < http://www.historylink102.com/greece3/men-women-roles.htm >
3) "Roles of Men, Women, and Children in Greece." Roles of Men, Women, and Children in Greece . N.p.< http://oldintranet.puhinui.school.nz/Topics/AncientCivs/greecerome/Greeceroles1.html >
4) Boivieapedia, Ancient Greece . Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web.
5) Ancient Greek Women . Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍
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Social Classes by Lourdes Dizon


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Throughout Ancient Greek times they divided all citizens with [[#|social classes]] . Again we have the same type of division for our citizens, but the rules and regularities are not as harsh as past times. For the Athens, the upper class-men did not have to withstand a job because they were not forced to pay any finances. They had slaves attend to their property, which is also called a maid for present terms. They were restrained to government, war, literature, and philosophy, while the arts were not encouraged for a man who had this much liberation. Also if you had 20 talents (talents is the term for units of money) then you were wealthy. In this image, it represents the different lifestyles that an upper and lower class-men receive.
For middle [[#|class]] citizens were free-men of foreign birth, but they were non citizens because they are ineligible for citizenship. This is where the professional men are appreciated, being merchants, craftsmen and artists. These men were not allowed to own land or marry a family who is a citizen, also very little would have the opportunity to vote. The fact that they did could not buy any land made land prices cheaper to the wealthy because there would be no competition for the land wanted.
Now for the lower class, these were those who had been slaves. It is very difficult for a slave to earn their own freedom, along with knowing that the best they could ever reach is middle class. The only way a slave could come out of freedom is when they are bought out by a friend or relative, in some cases themselves (if they have a second job). Also they could earn freedom if there “master” dies or feels that the slave’s job has been complete. Also, if they fight in a war (which is uncommon) they could earn their freedom.

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Greek Slave.jpg

Greek Slave.jpg


The lowest level you can possibly achieve is being a slave. These could be criminals, prisoners of war, or infants that were rescued. The cost of a slave was 50-1,000 dollars, but other times the government would employ the slaves with minor jobs and the majority of slaves were women who worked at home. In the image at the side, this shows how the slave (old man in dark robes) is teaching the children how while the parent sits and watches, taking no action. If they misbehaved then they would be whipped by people who are a higher ranking and the slaves are not permitted to defend themselves. The treatment gotten to the owner of a slave would vary on who the person is. In the 1st and 2nd Amendment, it gives you the freedom of speech, religion, to the press, and the right to bear arms. Also in the 13th and 15th Amendment, it abolishes slavery and involuntary servitude expects as a punishment for a crime and prohibits the denial of suffrage from previous conditions of servitude. Sadly, these rights, sadly, was not present in Ancient Greek times for slaves to use to their advantage.

Work Cited:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_amendments_to_the_United_States_Constitution
http://atschool.eduweb.co.uk/sirrobhitch.suffolk/portland%20state%20university%20greek%20civilization%20home%20page%20v2/docs/7/ryan.html
http://www.ancientgreece.com/s/Culture/

Piety by Lourdes Dizon


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The religion in Ancient Greece did not pertain to one certain who made all miracles happen, but by a various amount that controlled everything, from high to low importance, in life. Along that there was a category for each of these gods so they would have a certain amount of responsibility that affected a various amount of moments for Ancient Greek citizens. There were the gods that were said to have the greatest impact, and others who were en-charge of smaller events. In this picture, it shows all the gods together in Mount Olympus while Zeus is on his thrown.
Zeus, ruler of Mount Olympus, was the god of the sky, weather, thunder, lightning, law, order, and fate. Many, Greek citizens, believed that he would bring the weather that would please or displease, affect or torment them on a daily basis. Poseidon is the god of seas (also everything that is water), earthquakes, and horses. In Homer, it was constantly stated that he was called the “Earth Shaker.” So if a flood, an earthquake, or heard of horses happen to come along, Poseidon was the one who created the event. Hades is the god of the underworld (place of afterlife), the dead, and earth’s hidden wealth (agriculture and metals). If any death has come to anyone, you would know who has taken their souls, along with proving them gems and agriculture. These three gods are said to be the most powerful brethren who are in Mount Olympus.

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The women goddesses were equally represented but they all had their different levels of respect. Hera, the queen of heavens and goddess or marriage, women, childbirth, heir, kings, and empires, is greatly respected because she is the wife of Zeus. Also because she was the main provider of a “happy life” for the Ancient Greeks, seeing how she rules much of their overall life. There was also Athena, goddess of intelligent, skill, warfare, battle strategy, handicrafts, and wisdom holds most of the skills that men were appreciated for in Ancient Greece. She has brought forth much respect to women since it is said that she is Zeus’ favorite daughter, and was said to be born “more powerful than the sire.” Athena brought to the Greeks her arts and crafts, also assistance in the war (battle strategy) and to heroes during quests (her favorite, Odysseys). In this picture, it shows Athena standing with dignity, with Hera by the side of Zeus (clearly guiding him), and other gods and goddess representing themselves around them.

Artemis is the goddess of the hunt, wilderness, animals, young girls, childbirth (like Hera), and plague. She also shows another skill that mainly taken by men, hunting. It is said that she assists Hera in giving birth, and that she leads the hunts, protects young girls from danger, and is sometimes associated by raising the moon. Hestia is the goddess of hearth, home, and chastity. She would bring good to the house and warmth of fire to your house, along with innocence to the citizens of Ancient Greece. These four goddesses are all virgins, which again, bring greater honor to women. Then there is Aphrodite, who is the goddess of love, beauty, desire, and pleasure. She is no virgin, and affiliates herself with many men throughout Ancient Greece History. Which brings bad representation, like today’s media, to the women of Ancient Greece. She is said to bring love to all people, and “peace” knowing how after war there is healing and love.

Hermes is the god of boundaries, travel, communication, trade, thievery, trickery, diplomacy and athletics. He is the one who is said to bring messages to the gods and citizens if it is necessary. If there is every a crime committed, he would be the first to blame knowing that he is the god of thievery. Hephaestus is a the god of fire, metalworking, and crafts. He provides weapons, along with good craftsman who are able to match his work so they too can create and construct buildings that withstand in Ancient Greece. Dionysus is the god of wine, parties, festivals, madness, chaos, drunkenness, and ecstasy. He was the one who led the great celebrations in Ancient Greece, also is the reason why men or woman were driven man and insane. Apollo is the god of light, music, arts, knowledge, healing, plague, prophecy, poetry, purity, atheism, manly beauty. He brought forth the great musicians and artist; also he was the one who began the course of the Oracle. He brought forth the great healers, and he has a job or raising the sun to the sky to start the day. Ares is the god of war, bloodshed, and violence. He is the one who begins the wars and who leads the citizens to victory of death.

Work Cited:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Athena
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Greek_mythological_figures

Law & Balance by Lourdes Dizon

In Ancient Greek, they had to follow the legal system that was provided. During the Dark Ages, murders would be killed by a relative of the family that they murdered which began blood feuds. This system is common, an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth. They longed realized that the whole world would be blind and toothless so they began to establish official laws. Zeus, who is the rules of Olympus, would also be part of the system of law. Since he is the King of Olympus and is the god of law, they would call upon him for guidance. Their legal system is broken up to represent the many times of laws that should be represented. Tort Laws occur is when someone harms you or your property. This could involve murder, which would lead to exile. Also, there would be a fine for 100 talents if you were raped, or the amount of money was received depending on the amount stolen. There were also laws that stopped people form abusing nature: trees, wells, beehives.


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Family laws provided to regulate the behavior of men and women, but this law was generally for the females. Women were constantly under the supervision of their “official guardian.” They would be supervised by their father or husband because the constant supervision would limit a women appearing in court for reasons of a case or to evoke pity from the jury. Public laws forced people who live a certain distance from public to do their own work, were forbidden to trade agricultural goods. It also did not permit men to have a certain amount of land, along with allowing venders to change interest rates. Procedural laws were to inform judges on how to use the laws, it required in full detail of witnesses who were found guilty on a homicide case. In the image right next to you, the blindfolded woman provides the irony of innocent but she is holding the scale which
represents the balance of the law.
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The people who would provide the law were not the rules, but appointed officials. Although in the story Antigone, the law was decided by the kind/ruler/Creon, I believe it was to add a necessary drama to the play that Sophocles was writing. They were set to appoint a member who came from middle class because they wouldn’t write laws that would be unfair to the other social classes. In this image, the law of the Greek has been engraved into stone which symbolizes the importance of permanence for the law.

Work Cited:
http://www.ancientgreece.com/s/GreekGods/Zeus/
http://chars.lin.oakland.edu/lin109/Handouts/Greek/greeklaw.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Greek_mythological_figures

Celebration Time, Come On!!! by Lourdes Dizon

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Before, the Ancient Greeks would have different types of festivals that would represent an importance to a god or goddess. For the Anthesteria Festival, it gave honor for Dionysus. This event was led by the Athens and it lasted 3 days in the months February-Match. This is when they open new wine and anger the spirits of the dead. On the first day (Jar-Opening) they would go to the sanctuary of Dionysus and would sacrifice to him while sampling wine by the household. On the second day (Pitchers) people would try to impersonate Dionysus and go around visit acquaintances. They would also have a drinking competition where everyone would participate, even the slaves. Last, on the third day (Pots) they would gather seeds and vegetables and offer them to the dead. They smeared their doors from tar to protect themselves from evil which would symbolize: “Away with you, Keres, it is no longer Anthesteria.” In this image, it shows an example on how they would serve the wine to themselves on the first day of Anthesteria.

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There was also the festival called Dionysia that was made to represent the Dionysus Eleutherus, comedy, and tragedy. They would first go to a theater but to acknowledge the original arrival in Athens, they would follow an unknown route to the sacred area next to the theater. They would sacrifice animals and bloodless offerings while holding processions: loaves, symbols, sacred objects. They would then enter the theater and perform Greek tragedies while sons of citizens that were kill would wander around the theater to pay tribute to Athens’ allies. They would award a prize to the best poet who created the best poems based on 3 tragedies; comedy was later incorporated as a competition. In this image, it shows the men of Dionysia celebrating the festival outside of the theater before entering to perform. It is noticeable that they are holding objects that the participants held while on the trail to the theater.The main parts of these festivals are to interact other people from your community or towns. The festival Apaturia which is when you associate yourself with a particular group to build a brotherhood/common relationship. This is celebrated 3 days in a month of October-November, in those 3 days you have to enroll new members/you designate someone with a title to citizenship in your particular group. On the first day (dinner) you have a meal, on the second day (Drawing Back) you make sacrifices to Zeus and Athena. On the final day, is when the new members gain admission by feasting off the sacrificed animal and are sworn to legitimacy.

Work Cited:
http://www.religionfacts.com/greco-roman/festivals.htm
http://www.ancientgreece.co.uk/festivals/home_set.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Festivals_in_Ancient_Greece

You Influenced Me by Lourdes Dizon

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During the everyday life of a citizen from Ancient Greek, they had the people that they marveled upon because of their work and power. Sophocles has provided Ancient Greek with plays based on drama or comedy to entertain them. He provided over 100 plays where on 80 fragments and 90 others were preserved. Even to this day, he his work is used in school to demonstrate a different way of writing, along with a deeper significance that theater/art can present. He brought Greeks a deeper definition of tragedy which is why morality and religion are dramatic themes (decisions and fates). Plato, a Greek philosopher who founded the Academy in Athens (first institute that provided a high education for students). In this image, it shows him informing a man on information while walking, in a way; this shows that he would’ve tried to find time to help his students or any man in general. Plato affected children from Ancient Greek because he gave them a meaningful education that he provided from his influencing thinking and teaching skills. He gave his students, children of Ancient Greece, a Socratic style of teaching.

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Along the way there was Aspasia who was a teacher and writer who was the companion of a Athenian politician. She supported women’s rights and fought for the fact that women should be educated as well along-side with men. She gave women the opportunity to be educated, which was never considered since women are not known in doing things that could be affective to society. Like in Antigone by Sophocles, when the guard first states the problem to Creon, the ruler assumed that it was a male. This proves before women were not presented to society with a high importance. Adding Sappho, a poet who was the first to write short verses that described deep emotions, it shows that woman have a higher potential which should be shown and was able to be shows by important woman figures. From this image of Sappho, it gives a clear example that she is thinking of what to say, giving deep thought into the words that she will spill out.With Thucydides, he gave a different view of the war. After being exiled from his failure in battle for 20 years, he explains events in a new style. He did not use the gods as the reason of the actions that occurred, he also didn’t write while configuring legends and myths. He used evidence based in the war by recording events. This gave an accurate understanding of war to citizens because the proof does not come from the belief or the heart, but by the facts and evidence. He showed a deeper understanding of the situation, which is why history now is based on facts and not feelings.

Work Cited:
http://www.mitchellteachers.org/WorldHistory/AncientGreece/SignificantFiguresinAncientGreece.htm
http://www.ancientgreece.com/s/People/Main_Page/



‍‍‍‍2. [[#|The Arts]], Sciences, and Educational system in Ancient Greece‍‍‍‍ - Madison Loft


The Arts Of Greece

‍‍‍‍‍‍ Have you ever stopped to think about what everything was like in the time of ancient Greece? Have you ever done this outside of [[#|school]]? Many people don’t stop to spend time thinking about back then. And when they do, they hardly spare a second for the arts and sciences and [[#|education]] system, they are too focused on the gods and goddesses and myths and chariots. Among all this, many arts (excluding architecture) tend to get overlooked in the [[#|beauty]] of it all or are too captivated by all the other aspects. But in fact the arts were a way of communicating.‍‍‍‍‍‍‍
In ancient Greek time, the arts were used as a way to express ideas. ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍The Greeks wanted their art to show an idyllic society, and other scenes of mythology, war, everyday life, or even abstract designs.‍‍‍‍‍‍‍ Pottery, figurines, sculptures, architecture, and painting are examples of some of the different art forms they used to display ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍these themes.‍‍‍‍‍‍‍
‍‍‍‍‍‍‍In the “dark ages” of Greece, between 1050 B.C. and 900 B.C., the Greeks were decorating their pottery with rather intricate geometric designs. And after the 9th century B.C., the designed got increasingly more complex. It wasn’t until around the 7th century B.C. when human figures began to appear.‍‍‍‍‍‍‍

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‍‍‍‍‍‍‍ When it came to painting human figures onto pottery, there were two different techniques used. The first was called black - figure painting. In black figure painting, the silhouettes of the figures would be painted with black paint before being fired in a kiln. Details were added after with different colored paints, or by scratching off the black paint to reveal the color of the clay underneath it. The picture above is an example of black figure painting. The scene depicted is the story of Prometheus, who was chained to a rock while an eagle tore at him with his claws. The second kind developed later on, it was known as red - figure painting. In this kind of painting, the vase or surface which was to be painted was painted black. The figures in [[#|the painting]] were left the color of the clay. Red - figure painting was more lifelike than the earlier black - figure painting.‍‍‍‍‍‍‍

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The designs that Greeks put on their pottery always told a brilliant story. There were depictions from their mythology and frozen scenes from their everyday life. There is so much we can learn about the ancient Greeks just from the pieces of art they left behind. It’s like a whole different world you [[#|step]] into when you imagine what it was like, it is a whole different place from what we’re accustomed to today. I mean, do you honestly see that many people who make pottery all the time? And are they preserving pieces of their culture and society in it? Or is it just ‘pretty designs’?


‍‍‍‍‍‍‍http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Greek_art
http://www.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=3753872
http://forum.banglalibrary.org/topic994.html
http://www.ancientgreece.com/GreekPottery/‍‍‍‍‍‍‍

Greek Architecture Is Art

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Delphi
Delphi
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Is architecture art? For many centuries this question has been under heavy debate. Some believe that architecture is not art. And then there are some believe that certain architectural creations are indeed a form of art. The more ancient constructions are even more incredible than the modern day blocky buildings that we always see.
‍‍‍Constructing building out of stone with today’s resources and machinery seems like no big deal, we see it being done all the time don't we? Walking down the street we see that house that’s being remodeled, or the new section of the hospital being raised, everywhere we turn in this fast moving world there is something happening in the architectural world, and not very much of it contains the creativity you found in ancient architecture. But imagine in the time of ancient Greece, over two thousand years ago, having assembled a structure like the Temple of Apollo at Delphi. Even today, the ruins of this great temple are still standing, nestled within the tall mountain peaks. And they are still in marvelous condition for something that was made over twenty centuries ago in a society that had no cranes or bulldozers to help.‍‍‍
Long ago, within the crumbling walls of Delphi, the Oracle of Delphi sat. It was said that the Oracle's predictions were so accurate that for a while the Oracle of Delphi held enormous political and social power.


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The temple of Apollo (at Delphi) was originally built in the 8th century BC, but was destroyed by a serious fire or earthquake in 528. Practically ‍al‍ of the Greek city - states helped rebuild it. The new temple was completed in 505. In 373 the temple of Apollo was destroyed again, by an earthquake this time though, along with most of the rest of Delphi. It was restored again by 329 BC. The oracle then sat in that very temple, with no further repairs having to be made because of natural disasters damaging it, up until it was closed in the4th century AD because of its confliction with the beliefs of a newly Christian Rome.

‍‍‍http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Delphi
http://sacredsites.com/europe/greece/delphi.html
http://www.odysseyadventures.ca/articles/delphi/articleDelphi01.html
http://www.ancient-greece.org/architecture/delphi-temple-of-apollo.html
http://www.coastal.edu/ashes2art/delphi2/misc-essays/building_materials.html
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/greece/delphi-sanctuary-of-apollo
http://www.coastal.edu/ashes2art/delphi2/sanctuary/temple_apollo.html
http://nohoartsdistrict.com/index.php/north-hollywood-news/item/927-is-architecture-art
http://www.in2greece.com/english/places/historical/mainland/delphi.htm‍‍‍



Just like today, kids back in ancient Greece were expected to go to school and learn all their studies. Well, not all kids. Like many places long ago, girls were not allowed to go to school; they learned everything from home or not at
all. Boys however, started their education in a public school at the age of seven.


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external image educ2.jpg

There were two different [[#|kinds of education]] that were received by young boys. There was their formal education, and their informal education. Formal education was their public education, in a public school or by a hired tutor. Informal education was received from an unpaid teacher in a nonpublic environment. The type of education you received was based on your social class, like it was in many ancient societies.‍‍ The Greeks believed that not only should you educate your mind, but you imagination and body as well. Just how heavily each subject was studied varied from region to region. For example, Spartans focused mostly on the physical aspect of it, training men for military combat, so that they were "obedient to the word of command, capable of enduring hardships and victories in battle." Athens, on the other hand, mainly taught literature and dance and music, and later, the natural sciences. Athens was also more well - rounded than Sparta, since they believed that a man should be more than just a good soldier.
Young boys were taught moral values at home, for when they began their 'elementary' education. During their elementary education they were taught how to read, write, draw and count. For many, this was the only education they received, since they could not afford to pay for private tutors or lessons of any sort.
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external image Education1.jpg

Women or girls received all and any [[#|education]] they got at home, since they were not allowed to attend public schools. The only two formal educations that could be received by a woman were dance or music. Spartan women on the other hand received training in athletics, and were able to compete in because the Spartans took great pride in their strength. Spartan education was very different from the other Greek city - states. Spartans took great pride in their strength and skill. So rather than spend time focusing on education their kids about literature and crafts, they trained them to be warriors and fierce fighters. Overall, the education of the ancient Greeks, excluding the Spartans, was a very well -rounded education. It contained a wide variety of subjects; art, literature, dancing, music, crafts, and physical exercise. This is probably what made the Greeks, (and especially Greek philosophers) so wise.


‍‍‍http://www.csupomona.edu/~plin/ls201/greece4.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Education_in_ancient_Greece
http://library.thinkquest.org/J002606/AncientGreece.html
https://sites.google.com/site/naritenglishiv/first-draft-on-the-ancient-greece-education-system

* Spartan Warrior - The Education of Spartans *


Spartan education was different than the education received by other Greek children. Sparta was proud of the strength and skill that they possessed. Their army was feared and admired by ancient Greeks throughout all of Greece. If there was a war, you didn't want to be opposing Sparta. But from a very early age, all Spartans were trained to be tough warriors. In fact, a Spartan boy's education would not be complete until he reached the age of thirty. Even Spartan girls were trained to be strong.
Spartan boys were to be disciplined so that when they were older they’d be obedient soldiers when they were older. Spartans were trained from a young age to be “strong, violent, disciplined, unquestioning and ruthless young men, and more or less similar young women.”


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Young boys were taken out of their parents’ custody at the age of seven and sent too live in barracks with other boys close to their own age. They would eat, sleep, and train with the other boys in their barrack for the next five years. The boys were not given enough to eat, so they’d have to sneak out and steal food. In fact they were encouraged to do this. But the trick was not to ever get caught, or else you would be severely beaten and disciplined. They could also not show fear or pain. There is a story about a boy that shows just how important this was:

A hungry young boy stole a live fox from the market with the intent to take it and kill it later to eat. As he was retreating with the stolen livestock, he heard an adult approaching. He quickly hid the live fox under his shirt.
As the man quizzed the boy on where he had been and what he had been doing, the fox began to gnaw on the boy’s stomach. But rather than confess that he had stolen the fox and receive a punishment for it, he just took the excruciating pain, not letting his expression or his body show his pain.

This shows us how important it was for Spartan boys to be able to not show their pain or fear.
Spartan girls, unlike other girls in Greece, did receive public education that was both funded and supervised by the state. The girls’ education mostly, if not completely, revolved around their physical education, until the age of eighteen. They were taught to run, wrestle, and throw discus and javelins. They were trained to compete in many events, many of which are still present in modern day track and field events, like the girls seen running below. They were also taught to sing, dance and play instruments. The reason that the Spartans were so strict with the education of women is to prepare them to be the mothers of future soldiers to maintain the strength of the Spartans.
It was the fierce soldiers and warriors that the Spartans grew up to be that made Sparta such a strong and feared city-state of Greece. Sparta was probably one of the strongest states in Greece, ever. And for good reason…


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‍‍‍http://www.csupomona.edu/~plin/ls201/greece4.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Education_in_ancient_Greece
http://library.thinkquest.org/J002606/AncientGreece.html
https://sites.google.com/site/naritenglishiv/first-draft-on-the-ancient-greece-education-system
http://www.300spartanwarriors.com/images/394




Symbol of Greece – The Parthenon



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The Parthenon has long been considered the symbol of Greece. Most everybody knows exactly what you are referring to when you talk about it. People all over the globe have long admired this amazing architectural feat of the ancient Greeks.

The construction of the Parthenon began 447 BC to replace the temple that had been burned down by the Persians in 480 BC. Athens paid to build this great attribute in the height of the Athenian empire. This great temple was dedicated to the goddess Athena.


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The outside of the Parthenon has fifty columns (eight by seventeen). This isn’t any of the six columns by each of the two entrances or any of the columns on the inside. In total, the Parthenon contains a total of about 89 columns.
The Parthenon has many great sculptures, including the giant statue of Athena in the middle of the Parthenon. This statue was made by the rather well known sculptor by the name of Phidias. Two other men who are known to have helped in the making of this great stone creation that is the Parthenon are Ictinus and Callicrates.
The Parthenon has struggled through many conditions. Mid 3rd century AD a fire destroyed practically all of its roof. A new wooden roof with clay tiles was put on, but it had a greater slope and left the Parthenon’s wings exposed. In 1687 the Parthenon was extensively damaged. An ammunition dump inside the building got ignited and destroyed. A Greek architect and archaeologist wrote:
“…Three of the sanctuary’s four walls nearly collapsed and three – fifths of the sculptures from the frieze fell. Nothing on the roof apparently remained in place. Six columns from the South side fell, eight from the North, as whatever remained from Eastern porch, except for one column. The columns brought down with them the enormous marble architraves, triglyphs, and metopes.”
There is some controversy over whether it was an accident, or if the Parthenon was actually targeted.
The restoration of the Parthenon began in 1975, although they knew it would never be restored to pre-1687 state, they hoped to renew the “structural integrity” of the building. Today, the Parthenon is a great tourist attraction.

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parthenon
http://academic.reed.edu/humanities/110tech/parthenon.html
http://www.ancientgreece.com/s/Parthenon/
http://lib.store.yahoo.net/lib/coastal-style/phi4.jpg
http://farm1.staticflickr.com/130/348011604_017271c887_z.jpg
http://img.tebyan.net/library/english/7751_Greek%20Art%20and%20Architecture0.png


Sculpting of Ancient Greeks
We’ve all seen Greek sculptures, or Greek style sculptures. You know, they often times are naked with no arms, or from our perspective, look very close to being naked. The Greeks had this idea of the perfect human anatomy, which they displayed in all their artwork, sculting, painting, didn’t matter.
The Greeks used many different materials to make their sculptures. In the making of monumental sculptures they were most commonly made out of marble or bronze. These two materials were both easy to form and really durable. They usually used wood for the clothed parts. Plaster or stucco was only used for the hair. And limestone was only used for the architectural sculptures. The more luxury pieces or works used gold and ivory, and most likely gems, but only fragments have survived.


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There were four main periods of sculpture style in ancient Greece; the Archaic period, the Classic period, the Hellenistic period, and the Roman period
During the Archaic period, the most popular and important piece of artwork is the one we all seem to know, the nude male statue. This period had a particular focus on human anatomy, but they were more wooden, and didn’t move or flow as naturally as they did in the classic period.
The Classic period sculpture poses became way more natural, actually depicting real people. Before, most statues depicted Greek myths, but now the sculptures were of deceased loved ones or of wealthy people who had paid to have a statue of themselves formed.
From the Classic period to the Hellenistic period sculptures became more and more natural looking. Artists no longer depicted the human anatomy with the Greek idea of perfection.


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The Roman period is when the Romans began copying the Greek sculpting style.
Throughout hundreds of years the Greek sculpting style changed. Figures changed from scenes of the idyllic perfection the Greeks loved, to scenes of real life people. And the scenes that were preserved in the sculptures that the artist produced tell the story of the ancient Greek times.

http://www.ancientgreece.com/s/Sculpture/ http://farm5.static.flickr.com/4135/4798470075_7f816d1821.jpg http://us.123rf.com/400wm/400/400/bizoon/bizoon1107/bizoon110700032/10006030-paris-france--may-20-2011-the-famous-sculpture-of-venus-is-displayed-at-the-louvre-museum-in-paris-f.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classical_sculpture

3. Sports and Entertainment in Ancient Greece
Whats the first thing that pops into your head when hear the words chariot racing?‍‍‍‍‍‍‍ Do you think of ancient Greece? ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍Do you think of two men in togas drawn by horses speeding around a large dirt oval with a roaring crowed? Are there richly dressed people in the crowd? Do they have headbands made of golden leaves upon their heads? Are they at the olympics? Well lets see if you have your facts ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍strait‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍ or if your playing the stereo type in your head.
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In ancient Greece there were many sports. One sport that was common in the Olympics was chariot racing. ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍Chariot racing was one of the favorite sports back in ancient Greece,‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍ it involved multiple racers who had either two-horse and four-horse chariots. Another style of racing was a cart drawn by two mules. ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍The courses were oval shaped with sharp turns at the ends and were usually twelve laps long (about nine miles), two-horse and four-horse races were almost exactly the same except the number of horses drawing the chariot. There isn't an exact record on how chariot racing was started, but there are legends about how it was started. The first race recorded in history was at the funeral games of Patroclus, ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍Homer recorded race which was one lap around a tree stump. Many people believe that chariot racing was the founding event of the Olympics but against their beliefs it is not, chariot racing was added to the Olympics in 680 BC. ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍There were many races outside of the Olympics just for entertainment for citizens. According to Wikipedia "The races themselves were held in the Hippodrome, which held both chariot races and riding races. The hippodrome was situated at the south-east corner of the sanctuary of Olympia"

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2nd picture from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chariot_racing


‍‍‍‍‍work cited:
"Ancient Sports: Equestrian Events." Ancient Sports: Equestrian Events. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Feb. 2013.
"Chariot Racing." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 27 Jan. 2013. Web. 01 Feb. 2013.‍‍‍‍‍

4. The Political State: Greek Democracy in thought and practice. Aryanna Gorospe


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Athens
The system of Demokratia
As the time passed from 450 B.C., democracy had been introduced to America. Before that, democracy had been invented in ancient Athens, Greece by statesman Cleisthenes and other political icons. Before democracy was ever even pronounced now in the United States it was known as demokratia in Greece . Demokratia meant government among the people of Athens and it also meant power of all people. The Demokratia had been originally organized by being separated into groups. In the system they were known as the Ekkletia, the Boule and the Dikasteria. The whole system was a sucessful turnout because everyone was working together,according to History.com “it had equality before law” and decisions were made diferently . When Cleisthenes had thought about this system, he thought about what the choices the people had and he found out that there hardly werent any to choose from. The people of Athens were ruled by a king and their choices were made by a dictator. The king would sail their ship and tell everyone where it was to go.Thats when a group of men decided that there was no more room for dictators. The demokratia was born and the poeple of athens could vote on certain things and practice their new rights. History.com quotes Herodotus, a Greek historian, saying that there should be equality before law. What he means is that people should have the same choices that others do. The people will have the same equall protection of laws and other things. It also means that there should not be a rule made if people are not going to be under the same one or that if the people break it, others won't be punished because they are favored. For a complicated system it was strictly organized. Including the three groups, it was not the whole system there was a lot more. People who lived near these political communities, wanted to listen to what their representatives were saying about them what they knew. These issues were explained by someone like a caucus, but these people would be chosen representatives of small towns. It was a good plan that made people not be so much different than one another. There were some people who felt out of place because they were extremely less fortunate. These people must have glad and greatfull because they were going to have a lot going for them with a change in government so big. The groups within the system were succesful also because they were organized in such a way that they would each need each other for something they needed. This system was going to progress. Soon there it a breaking point where the system entirely falls and becomes embarrasing for Cleisthenes because tried to make things better. To the people of Athens he was the complete opposite. Later on this system would live again in a whole different way and thrive. It would happen durring the 1700s to today and it would be known in America as the system that they have had for more the 200 years, as Democracy.

"Ancient Greek Democracy." History.com . A&E Television Networks, 1996.Web. 29 Jan. 2013. < http://www.history.com/topics/ancient-greece-democracy >.
Meiggs, Russel. "Cleisthenes Of Athens (Greek Statesman)." Encyclopedia Britannica Online . Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 29 Jan. 2013.
"H2g2 - Demokratia - the Athenian Democracy - A805952." H2g2 - Demokratia - the Athenian Democracy - A805952 . H2g2, 2 June 2003. Web. 30 Jan. 2013.



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The Ekklesia

The Eklesia is what is called now in america the assembly. "The ekkletia had a large group ,carefully picked, with some 40,000 adult men." (Ancient) It was group that had many members to have a variety of opinions. The variety of opinions led to accurate based decisions, and almost a whole community of men were intelligent about what to do about a certain predicaments. They had discussed the issues of Athens and decided on them with the majority vote depending on certain variables. These men were all working together like the primary idea that was meant for democracy. The group allowed people to speak on their own behalf and express their side issue. The word Ekklsia means people assembly, so its was like a meeting. Admitted by History.com, the Ekklesia was held, “in a hillside auditorium west of the Acropolis called the Pnyx.” Because the Ekklesia had a whole building to represent itslef its had major importance. These people were serious about what they wanted from their government. It was a symbol of power, power that the people had together as a whole. Men of a 18 and over were able to talk about what they wanted changed. Similar to U.S. government, people had the freedom to come and listen because whatever they decided was going to affect them all in a way either bad or good.It was intersting because the people expected things to become changed faster because of this part of the system. However because of how long this process took the people surrounded by it were a little impatient. People had to wait for what almost felt like a lifetime to them. For example, one of the legislators would like to make a new law. He gives the idea to a memeber and he revises it thoroughly and closely. The reviser hands it to one group to vote for its approval and they hand it to another until the king says yes. And the process like today's process could have lasted for a long time between 6 months to a year. That unimpressed some people and funds to run this part of the system would decrease a little. This was a samll sign that this system might not be working hard enough. The problem was that they were working hard, its just that these things took time especially when apssing a law. Of course the people got used to it after a while so they went on with their ways. It was a controlled group that kind of had it easy because they had less to worry about. Luckily they did not have to worry about much because they worked the closest with the people and they were their most impotant clients. Because trhey had more interaction with the people they got toknow their issues the best. It was almost as if they were a political party, but they were not as commited to be one because that had not existed until later. The Ekklesia is the most person friendly out of the groups.




"Ancient Greek Democracy." History.com . A&E Television Networks, 1996.Web. 29 Jan. 2013. < http://www.history.com/topics/ancient-greece-democracy >.
Meiggs, Russel. "Cleisthenes Of Athens (Greek Statesman)." Encyclopedia Britannica Online . Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 29 Jan. 2013.
"H2g2 - Demokratia - the Athenian Democracy - A805952." H2g2 - Demokratia - the Athenian Democracy - A805952 . H2g2, 2 June 2003. Web. 30 Jan. 2013.
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The Boule
The second part of the system was titled the Boule. This part was also known as the "Council of 500 men because, it was a group of 500 men". (Ancient) ‍‍For the reason that by a theory it was more democratic to vote by chance, the elections in this group were truly anonymous‍‍. Democracy plays a great part in the Boule, for it is a group of people considered as legislators that made certain decisions being the voice of a protecting part of Athens. According to History.com "It supervised government workers and was in charge of things like navy ships (triremes) and army horses." This group is sort of similar to the Ekklesia because there are many men meeting to make decisions, but there were different amounts people and they were more a of a daily meeting group. These men payed more attention to the little things and the population To protect the city was extremely important because war was a great part of what had to happen to defend a side. In addition this time was also the time where wars were caused of a small conflict. Conflicts that caused those wars were most likely when a king did not agree with another or the trade between two cities was not going to work out. The arrangements were chosen by a "random lottery" that would allow chance to decide the outcome. Chance had played a big part of the Boule because pure opinion was not allowed to be an option. Class, popularity and gender were thought of as interfering with the arrangement making it sound biased and chosen by one person. These people were intelligent because if some part of this decision was biased one side some would be more disappointed than anothers. The unfair arrangement would have ended the system so much longer ago and there would not have been much accomplishment. For example, the people of Athens would like a stadium in a certain space. The more fortunate of the people would want it to be closer to their house holds so that they would not have to travel as far because they live on the other side of town. The people who are less fortunate would like it to be closer to their households because they live on the opposite side of town. If the stadium were even a bit closer to one side it would not be fair. To make it equall it is best to put it in the middle so that they have to travel the same distance and not everyone has to travel so far or be too close. The way in this system was equally fair and had its upsides. Unfortunately, The system of Demokratia had fallen and collapsed. It was unfair to Cleithenes but it was what the people wanted. That was the end of the Boule and no one was in favor of it anymore so it was away and gone. That is until America had adopted the system later on.

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The Diksateria
.Another important group was called the Dikasteria, better known now as the judicial branch. "The Jurors of this group were making decisions before the other groups made decisions."(Ancient) Think of the as the supreme court that deals with serious conditions.They were minimally the individuals that made choices before a certain request was made and before it is approved. These men would also decide on certain issues like the other groups but there were other more complicated ways of making the decisions. These were lso different people because they were over 30 years of age. These men were like judges, they had to hear the issue, help the court decide and choose a verdict. It as almost as if it were a court system but not quite. Incredibly, they were the wisest, but as older people do today they did not get the “new” technology.This is the most important group because when the decisions they made were completely and utterly final. This group was a strict one that had their demands.They were only finally made because the system was young and had some kinks in it. Actually this part of the system was he most important one. Older men were setting an example as they should be. Not many people realized that there was an organized group in their system. As Aristotle had said, “it contributed most to the strength of democracy.” (Ancient) This assembly of people were almost as important as the king. Bceause Athens did not have law enforcement, they had to do a lot of work. It was over 500 men who had to work together on a ship, except there was not such thing as a captain. The captain of the ship were many captains who took a vote on which direction they thought was better to head. The Greeks had always compared their life and culture as a voyage on a vessel. Many belived that the ship went in a lot of right directions. The passage was a little bit bumpy towards the end. People were not interested in the system anymore because it was falling in a way. Fast was the way to go and it was anything but. The king was not happy because he did have his opinion elaborated. He wanted much more out of the system. He believed that the system would be better terminated. He was being biased and starting to think that his judgment was more trusted.Things would go faster because he would point the ship in the right direction. For a while that ship had sailed and had a great voyage. On the other hand that voyage was going to end pretty soon and the ship had sunken. Sadly The Dikasteria was a good but by history it was never meant to be a smooth sailing ship. There were times where the Dikasteria had success ,but there was a small thing they missed. Still the unique Dikasteria was known as one of the frist court of judges who made history.

"Ancient Greek Democracy." History.com . A&E Television Networks, 1996.Web. 29 Jan. 2013. < http://www.history.com/topics/ancient-greece-democracy >.
Meiggs, Russel. "Cleisthenes Of Athens (Greek Statesman)." Encyclopedia Britannica Online . Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 29 Jan. 2013.
"H2g2 - Demokratia - the Athenian Democracy - A805952." H2g2 - Demokratia - the Athenian Democracy - A805952 . H2g2, 2 June 2003. Web. 30 Jan. 2013.
"Ecclesia (ancient Greek Assembly)." Encyclopedia Britannica Online . Encyclopedia Britannica, 2013. Web. 2 Mar. 2013.

Cleisthenes

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Lets say that Cleisthenes is like a teacher, "regarded as the founder of Athenian democracy"(Meiggs). The students happen to be all of Athens' politicians who believe in that there should be a better government. Having a king was not the best what for a country to be run.Class is going to begin and the teacher would like to say that "were still looking to the past rather than the future." (Meiggs) Cleithenes was trying to teach or enlighten the politicians by saying that there is no need for old ways. The old ways are not giving people the equality to have opinion. There is a better furture awayting and if new ways are studied there can be progression to the forward direction. Cletisthenes wanted to change a lot and he was asking a lot. Changing a whole system was going to be a lot of work. It was going to take people who were willing to do the job. The politicians still collaborated and tried out a different system. It took not too long, but it worked out. It was almost as if the students were practicing for a test getting very close to visualizing the perfect greade. Successfully, the students got a passing grade and tried to live with it for a while. Additionally, this statesman is genuinely important to this system not only because he invented it but because of how he map of the system worked. There was still a king and he passed the laws, but there would be a lawgiver of some sort to analyze it to check for bias and other imperfections. This may not sound like democracy to Americans but these were the first years of the system and things would have evolved like they already have. Don't worry there was a process that the law was to go through. Cleisthenes had a hard time growing up because of his confusing family. He had two family members both named Megacles, one being his father and the other being his granfather. People and member were fighting and not getting anything out of the way because their ideas of ending the fight were biased. Family members of him, such as his grandfather, were figting and, “made an unsuccessful bid to seize the Acropolis and make himself tyrant.”(Civilizations) Cleisthenes was born to be a politician anyway and had an idea that every person can contribute to. Anyone was welcome to put their ideas forward and accept or modify them. It is the history of this time that made the American United States system today.But because this system was the Athenian system it had fallen and changed again. It fell fast and ended up not being a successful system because people did not believe in it any longer. Cleisthenes whereabouts were unknown after that because he was not as popular anymore. In that time you were popular until no one speaks of you anymore. Still statesman Cleisthenes was an important political figure in the uniqueGreek political system.


"Ancient Civilizations : Political Organization : Laws and Penalties." ThinkQuest. Oracle Foundation, 2000. Web. 3 Mar. 2013.
"Ancient Greek Democracy." History.com . A&E Television Networks, 1996.Web. 29 Jan. 2013. < http://www.history.com/topics/ancient-greece-democracy >.
Meiggs, Russel. "Cleisthenes Of Athens (Greek Statesman)." Encyclopedia Britannica Online . Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 29 Jan. 2013.
"H2g2 - Demokratia - the Athenian Democracy - A805952." H2g2 - Demokratia - the Athenian Democracy - A805952 . H2g2, 2 June 2003. Web. 30 Jan. 2013.

The Differences Between American Democracy and Athenian Democracy
Greek Many years after Ancient Greek democracy had its time, the United States had adopted the system and had success ever since. Everyone in the country has rights that protect them in certain situations, has a jury trial that allows them to be judged before anyone is accused and have a vote for their choice of a government official. The Greeks had influenced the value of everyone being equal to one another. Equal to one another meaning the same principles applying to each person under this system. These two systems are fairly different from each other. As a matter of fact in these systems, " you look at the facts, the more the ancient democracy of Athens and the democracies of today look different". The assembly in Greek term is Ekklesia and they both have a group of people considering the issues of their time. Furthermore, it is truly got people to visualize what was happening to their community by attending the meetings that the assembly programed. The people could see what was wrong or what was going right. They knew what was happening in their community.In this time there is more to the assembly than people , there is technology that has changed the government system for a few decades now. With regards to L. Hunt, he explains that, “the greatest difference between modern democracy and Golden age Athenian democracy is that of the ‘men only’ policy.” It’s true, men were the only politicians in that time because women were considered not as intelligent as a man. It is insulting to the modern woman to have said such a thing.For billions of year men have been “the most worthy” of working. Any women today are certainly against that statement, but today they have nothing to worry about because they have the right to now. Alternatively, women have been fighting for their right hundreds of years after ancient Greek times. Women such as Harriet Tubman, Susan B. Anthony and other fought for a side. In the ancient system there were still helpless slaves involved and they did not have as many rights as greedy others. Slaves were thought of as people who did not deserve these rights because they were down below someone's class. In the modern United States however, no there not as many slaves only because many people choose to believe that slavery is a good thing. This slavery had been going on before the demokratia system had taken place. No one cared for these poor people so they said they were not protcted under certain laws. This was a worthy group that had its benefits and downsides. This group was one of the three that each had something in common meaning their group of people. Men were able to arrange things that were important to the city of Athens, Greece and get stuff done. Overall the group is a group that disscused congress and had meetings that had moved people to play a part in their community.

.Democracy: As Similar to Ours as We Think?" BBC History Magazine. BBC Worldwide, 1 Nov. 2011. Web. 5 Mar. 2011
Hunt, Luther. "Athenian Democracy -vs- Modern Democracy | Ricocheting.com." Athenian Democracy -vs- Modern Democracy | Ricocheting.com. Health and Company, 1995. Web. 3 Mar. 2013.

Reflections...

Lourdes Dizon

My experience doing Mythological Adventure was an adventure. I enjoyed doing research on the topic that I had, although, I would’ve loved to do another topic though. It would’ve been fun require having to do at least 6 topics but you were able to choose which topic you wanted to discuss about. But in each of the sections, there would be a limited amount of entries that could be submitted. I believe the reason that I wasn’t complaining about it was because I was already fascinated about Greek Mythology, and this Adventure caught my full attention, which intrigued me into the subject. I honestly thought that the subject that I got was boring because I wasn’t able to research what was my actual interest. But when finding topics that DO relate to my topic, it was fine. I would try to consider, “Okay, I have this topic but I want to talk about this. Can I relate these to topics so I can AT LEAST mention my knowledge on the topic I like?” So when you’re talking about Daily Life, wouldn’t Customs be part of that topic? Because the customs that the females and males do are what they do in their daily life. This adventure was very time consuming, especially since I later there was an absence on ¾ for my Mythological Adventure.

The adventure wasn’t as dangerous since I didn’t have any challenges on finding the information needed to answer the topics. It was difficult finding pictures because they wouldn’t accommodate the topic that I was talking about. It would be about the topic, but it wouldn’t blend well with the subject that I was talking about. I hope that made sense. I may sound like I’m complaining, but I really disliked the fact that I wasn’t able to write about the subject that I knew the most about (by heart). I can admit I have many flaws in my writing, but I’m not ashamed because this adventure helps me notice the many mistakes that I could fix (I just know I’m lazy until I have motivation). If I created the idea of Mythological Adventure I wouldn’t be writing this reflection right now, but I think it is good. I’m able to express my appreciation, opinion (good or bad), and few complaints. Anyways, thanks Mr. Bearson for giving us this wiki page and having us write more than 4,000 words!! Have a great spring break :D